One of the most important wonder of the world is the pyramid. The Pyramids are built in great difficulty and there is no proof for the raw materials with which they were built. They were brought from long area ranging from more than 1,000 K.M., and history proves it.
Pyramids in Egypt – Time Period:
The pyramids are monumental structure with stone or brick constructed with rectangular base or sometimes trapezoidal in shape. Their construction changed from time to time in Egypt, Sudan, Greece, Cyprus, Italy, India, Thailand, Mexico, and South America. But Egyptian are well known.
It was built for over a period of 2,700 Years. It started in the 3rd dynasty of Egypt and closed in the 6th dynasty. It was a royal tomb size in those times. It was a grave with a enclosure on high desert ground with an adjacent mortuary type temple and leading its way to the valley temple which is connected to the canal of the Nile. There were nearly eighty pyramids in Egypt and many of them were ruined and stolen off their riches long ago.
Pyramids in Egypt – Architecture:
The prototype of the pyramid was the mastaba(Egyptian Word). It was designed with a flat-topped rectangular super structure of stone or brick with a shaft leading to the burial chamber. DOJSER, the 2nd King of the 3rd dynasty appointed IMHOTEP as an architect who constructed the mastaba purely out of the stone. It came to the height of 60 Meter and its based measuring 120m X 108m. It is called the Step pyramid and is one of the important one of Egypt. It was the first stone building. The greatest Pyramids are of Pharaohs Khufu, khafre and Menkaure at Giza. The Pharaohs are called as God-Kings.
The Great Pyramids of Giza was built over 5,000 years ago and Egyptians say that the area about which the pyramid is built is about 13 Acres and has a straggling total of 2,300,000 blocks of granite and limestone. There is no exact history about the transportation, construction and Quarrying of the pyramids.
The book of the dead, the ancient collection of mortuary texts, was found in the Egyptians tombs. It shows that it was re-edited in the 16th Century B.C. It includes the coffin texts from 2400 B.C. to 2000 B.C. Many of the book copies were found in the Egyptian tombs.
Sphinx, is a part of the great pyramids. It is a mythological creature with lion’s body with a human head and is an important image in the Egyptian and Greek art legend. Sphinx is derived from the Greek Grammarians word Sphingein that means to bind or to squeeze. It shows the Man crawling at childhood and walking with two legs in the grown age and starts to lean at old age. It is one of the monuments nearby the pyramids of the Egypt. The earliest and most famous one is at Giza. There are male sphinx and female sphinx and female one can be found some times with the male and it is identified with her paws raised. In later years, sphinx came out with wings and disappeared in the Egyptian history in 1,200 B.C and reappeared after 400 Years.
The great pyramid of Khufu, is the tomb building and was the true pyramid. It’s size of the base reaches from 13 acres to !7 acres. The Khufu pyramid has some characteristic features in it such as a loft, and grand gallery, the king’s chamber and the five compartments. The focal point of the pyramid has a funereally point of the king. The royal body of the king will be kept on valley temple built on the edge of the desert escarpment. The royal body of the king Unas of the 5th dynasty is still found fresh inside this pyramid. The dimensions of the pyramid are accurately made such that the atmosphere found inside the pyramid will not spoil skinned matter at any cost. The Kings also used to keep valuables such as Golden Pots and Jewels inside the pyramid to prevent it from theft but some of the pyramids miss the valuables in them and some of the pyramids possess them.
Egypt, is a country with good landscape dominant feature with the presents of Nile. Most of the areas are deserts. Limestone plateaus and sandstone plateaus are found and helped in the construction of Pyramids. One of the best civilizations of the world is the “Egyptian Civilization”.