Galileo: Life History and Achievements
Galilei- Vineenzo was born in the year 1520 at Santa Maria in Monte near Florence in Italy. He was graved on July 2, 1591 at Florence. He was the father of Galileo and a great musician. Galileo was born on February 15 1564 at Pisa and died on January 8, 1642 at Arcetri, near Florence. He was an Italian Mathematician, astronomer and physicist and is considered as the founder of the experimental method. He was educated at a monastery near Florence before studying medicine at the University at Pisa and Mathematics with a private tutor. After completing a treatise on the centre of gravity on solids, he became the lecturer at the University at the age of 25. Later he went to the University of Padua as a professor of Mathematics. The story of his dropping weights from the leaning tower of Pisa has no basis in fact. Galileo’s conflict with the Church arose over his support of the Copernican theory-that the planets revolve around the sun. A substantial works part is related to mechanics and he was the first to apply mathematics to the analysis. He suggested the use of Pendulum for clocks and proposed the law of uniform acceleration of falling bodies. Galileo developed the astronomical telescope, with which he discovered the craters on the moon, sunspots, phases of Venus, and the satellites of Jupiter. He was the one who showed the Milky Way is composed of Stars. Galileo was under house arrest for the final eight years of his life for having “held and taught”, Copernican Doctrine. His main works were Dialogue concerning the two chief World Systems-Ptolemic and Copernican in the year 1632 and Dialogue Concerning Two New Sciences (1638). This is the short life history of Galileo.
Here follows some of his great life achievements. Heliocentric system, any theoretical model of the solar system in which it is assumed that the sun lives at or the near centre and Earth is included along with other bodies revolving around it. But it was said as “Central fire” around which all planets revolve by philolaus in 5th century BC. Galileo correctly proposed it in 1633. Galileo has also made individual analysis on separate planets. He discovered two satellites of Jupiter. He proposed that Europa was a satellite of Jupiter on 1610 and it is at a mean distance of 671,000 Kms from Jupiter and possessed a sidereal period of 3.551 days and orbital inclination is 0.47 degrees and has a radius of 1,569kms and mass of 4.785X1022 Kgs. He too proposed Callisto is a satellite of Jupiter and at a distance of 1,883,000 Kms from it with a mass of 1.075X1023kg. Regarding Saturn he made first observation in 1610 with his telescope. He saw Saturn three colored. So, he said “Saturn is not one alone, but is composed of three, which almost touch one another”. After three years he found it to be wrong. He gave a sharp conclusion that a thin, flat ring, which nowhere touches the body of the planet, surrounds Saturn. His theory met with a surprising amount of opposition but in 1665 it was universally accepted even though the nature of the ring system was not accepted much later. He concerned of nature as governed thought by law stat able with mathematical precision; The book of nature, he said, is “Written in mathematical form”. When Galileo’s demonstration that the earth moved was confirmed by the work of Newton and others, a battle was born in the history of rationalism that won at last, since it provided a decisive victory in a crucial case of conflict between reason and apparently revealed the truth in the life of Galileo. He too gave some revolutionary theories following in the tradition already established by Copernicans and Kepler. In Galileo’s work more original scientific directions came into a head. His life was composed of various achievements and that led him to a great victory. His achievements will be spoken by the world always.