Confucianism, a western term that has no counterpart in Chinese is a world-view, a social ethic, a political ideology, a scholarly tradition and a way of life. Sometimes viewed as a philosophy and sometimes viewed as a religion, Confucianism may be understood as an all-encompassing humanism that either denies more slights heaven. East Asians may profess themselves to be Shintoists, Taoists, Buddhists, Muslims or Christians, but by announcing their religious affiliations, seldom do they cease to be Confucians. Although often grouped with the major historical religions. Confucianism differs from them by not being an organized religion. Nonetheless, it spread to all East Asian Countries under the influence of Chinese Literate culture and exerted a profound influence on East Asian countries under the influence of Chinese Literate culture and exerted a profound influence on east Asian Spiritual life as well as on East Asian political life. Both the theory and practice of Confucianism have indelibly marked the patterns of government, society, education, and family of East Asia. It is an exaggeration to characterize tradition Chinese life and culture as Confucian but Confucians ethical values have for well over 2,000 years served as the source of inspiration as well as the court of appeal for human interaction between individuals, communities, and nations in the world.

The story of Confucianism does not begin with Confucius which is the Latinized form of K’ung-fu-tzu, Master k’ung whose era was from 551 BC to 479 BC. Nor was Confucius was the founder of Confucianism in the sense that Buddha was he founder of Buddhism and Jesus was the founder of Christianity. Rather Confucius considered him as a transmitter who consciously tried to reanimate the ole in order to attain the new. He proposed retrieving the meaning of the past by breathing vitality into seemingly out molded rituals. Confucius love for antiquity was motivated by his strong desire to understand why certain rituals, such as the ancestral cult, reverence for heavens, and mourning ceremonies had survived for centuries. His journey into the past was a search for the roots, which was perceived as grounded in humanities deepest needs for belonging and communicating. He had faith in the cumulative power of culture. The fact that traditional ways has lost vitality did not for him diminish their potentials for regeneration in the future. In fact, Confucius sense of history was so strong that he saw himself as a convertionist responsible for the continuity of the cultural values and the social norms that he had worked so well for the verbalization of the Chou dynasty. The life of Confucius n contrast to his tremendous importance, seems starkly un-dramatic or as a Chinese expression had it “plain and real”. When Confucius demanded of his students was the willingness to learn “I do not enlighten anyone who is not eager to learn, nor encourage anyone who is not eager to learn, nor encourage anyone who is not anxious to pert his ideas into words”. It was dammed that Confucius was born on 28th September 551 BC. It is observed as a national holiday in china and a national holiday in china and a national holiday in Taiwan as Teacher’s day. After the death of Confucius his eight disciples spread out into eight different schools. Among them mercies: The Paradigmatic Confucian Intellectual and Hsun-tsu: the transmitter of Confucian scholarship. The five classics of Confucius are worldly famous. They can be called as metaphysical, political, social, poetic and historical. The study of Confucius and Confucians, not only as a historical significant inquiry but also as a philosophically meaningful and challenging endeavor.

Buddhism in China

Gautham Budda or Gauthama Siddhartha was born in Lumbini Garden in 78 AD. His father was Suddhadhana. He was given in to marriage with Yashodara and they had a son called Rahul. Gauthama changed his mind and turned out to be a nomad after he saw some of old man, diseased man and a dead body. He gave up his kingdom and came out. He meditated and got enlightened. He was called to be Buddha, which means the enlightened one. He has the world, the three great truth eight fold path and ten commandments. Although there are reports of Buddhists in China as early as the 3rd century BC, Buddhism was not actively propagated in that country until the early centuries of the Common Era. Tradition has it that Buddhism was introduced after the Han emperor Ming Ti had a dream of a flying golden deity that was interpreted as a vision of the Buddha. Accordingly, the emperor dispatched emissaries to India who subsequently returned to China with the Sutra in Forty-two Sections, which was deposited in a temple outside the capital of Lo-yang. In actuality, Buddhism entered China gradually, first primarily through Central Asia and, later, by way of the trade routes around and through Southeast Asia.

The early centuries of Buddhism:

The Buddhism that first became popular in China during the Han dynasty was deeply colored with magical practices, making it compatible with popular Chinese Taoism. Instead of the doctrine of no-self, early Chinese Buddhists taught the indestructibility of the soul. Nirvana became a kind of immortality. They also taught the theory of karma, the values of charity and compassion, and the need to suppress the passions. Until the end of the Han dynasty, there was a virtual symbiosis between Taoism and Buddhism and a common propagation of the means for attaining immortality through various ascetic practices.


It was widely believed that Laotzu, the founder of Taoism, had been reborn in India as the Buddha. Many Chinese emperors worshiped Lao-tzu, the founder of Taoism, had been reborn in India as the Buddha. Many Chinese emperors worshiped Lao-tzu and the Buddha on the same altar. The first translations of Buddhist sutras into Chinese-namely those dealing with utilized a Taoist vocabulary to make the Buddhist faith intelligible to the Chinese. After the Han period, in the north of China, Buddhist monks were often used by non-Chinese emperors for their political-military counsel as well as for their skill in magic. At the same time, in the south, Buddhism began to penetrate the philosophical and literary circles of the gentry. One of the most important contributions to the growth of Buddhism in China during this period was the work of translation. The most important of the early translators was the learned monk Kumarajiva, who, before he was brought to the Chinese court in AD 401, had studied the Hindu Vedas, the occult sciences, and astronomy, as well as the Hinayana and Mahayana sutras. During the 5th and 6th centuries AD Buddhist schools from India became established, and new, specifically Chinese schools began to form. Buddhism was becoming a powerful intellectual force in China, monastic establishments were proliferating and Buddhism was becoming well established among the peasantry. Thus it is not surprising that, when the Sui dynasty (518-618) established its rule over a reunified China, Buddhism flourished as a state religion.

Developments during the Tang Dynasty (618-907):

. The golden age of Buddhism in China occurred during the Tang dynasty. Though the Tang emperors were usually Taoists themselves, they tended to favour Buddhism, which had become extremely popular. Under the Tang the government extended its control over the monasteries and the ordination and legal status of monks. From this time forward, the Chinese monk styled himself simply ch’en or “a subject”. During this period several Chinese schools developed their own distinctive approaches. Some of them produced comprehensive systematizations of the vast body of Buddhist texts and teachings. There was a great expansion in the number of Buddhist monasteries and the amount of land they owned. It was also during this period that many scholars made pilgrimages to India, heroic journeys that greatly enriched Buddhism in china, both by the texts that were acquired and by the intellectual and spiritual inspiration that was brought from India. Buddhism was never able to replace its Taoist and Confucian rivals, however, and in 845 the emperor Wu-tsung began a major persecution. According to records, 4,600 Buddhist temples and 40,000 shrines were destroyed, and 260,500 monks and nuns were forced to return to lay life.

Buddhism after the T’ang

: Buddhism in China never recovered completely from the great persecution of 845. It did maintain much of its heritage, however, and it continued to play a significant role in the religious life of China. On the one hand, Buddhism retained its identity as Buddhism and generated new forms through which it was expressed. These included texts such as the yu lu, or “recorded sayings,” of famous teachers that were oriented primarily toward monks, as well as more literary creations such as the Journey to the West (written in the 16th century) and The Dream of the Red Chamber (18th century). On the other hand, Buddhism coalesced with the Confucian-Neo-Confucian and Taoist traditions to form a complex multi-religious ethos within which all three traditions were more or less comfortably encompassed. Among the various schools the two that retained the greatest vitality were the Ch’an school (better known in the West by its Japanese name, Zen), which was noted for its emphasis on meditation, and the Pure Land tradition, which emphasized Buddhist devotion. The former school exerted the greatest influence among the cultured elite. It did so through various media, including the arts. For example, Ch’an artists during the Sung dynasty (960-1279) had a decisive impact on Chinese landscape painting. Artists used images of flowers, rivers, and trees, executed with sudden, deft strokes, to evoke an insight into the flux and emptiness of all reality. The Pure Land tradition exerted a greater influence on the population as a whole and was sometimes associated with secret societies and peasant uprisings. But the two seemingly disparate traditions were often very closely linked. In addition, they were mixed with other Buddhist elements such as the so-called “masses for the dead” that had originally been popularized by the practitioners of Esoteric Buddhism. During the early decades of the 20th century, China experienced a Buddhist reform movement aimed at revitalizing the Chinese Buddhist tradition and adapting Buddhist teachings and institutions to modern conditions. However, the disruptions caused by the Sino-Japanese War and the subsequent establishment of a communist government has not been helpful to the Buddhist cause. The Buddhist community was the victim of severe repression during the Cultural Revolution (1966-69). Since 1976 the Chinese government has pursued a more tolerant policy, but the extent of continuing Buddhist vitality is difficult to determine.

History of China

The two pre-historic centers from which migrations of modern human population over the continent took place were south west Asia and a region comprising the Mongolians’ plateaus and North China. From prehistoric to historic times, possibly beginning as early as 30,000 years ago, movements from South West Asia continued towards Europe and into Central Asia with significant movements into china was taking place. Prehistoric counter movements along the China coast carried early Asiatic migrants of South East Asia, Northward again into Korea and Japan. It is believed that the Japanese and Koreans joined together to settle in China and led to the establishments of Chinese Civilization. Vietnamese influence has profoundly affected Chinese society, setting it apart from the main land societies further west. Chinese Buddhism, formally the Mahayana School is of the Vietnamese influence.

China and Foreign Powers:

China consisted of five regions. They were China proper, Manchuria, Mongolia, Sinkiang and Tibet. They did not become a colony or dependency of any European country. China had a strong Government to hold the country together. The Manchu kings, who conquered China in 1644 continued to rule over the country till 1912. But China grew weak around 19th Century. European countries had trade contact with China. The Jesuits were the first to reach China with the aim to spread Christianity. The Portuguese reached China in 1516 A.D. They were followed by the Dutch and British and other European powers. Americans also had trade contacts with China but were restricted only to the city of Canton. The British made several attempts to increase trade with China. The British and other European powers felt that they were treated as foreign devils and denied the status of equality with the Chinese. Meanwhile a new trade was rapidly growing. Opium was smuggled into China. The British traders forced opium on the Chinese people in its worst form. The Chinese Government issued order prohibiting the import of opium. But the British continued to smuggle opium, which led to the opium wars.

Opium Wars:

In 1840, the First Opium War broke out between the English and the Chinese. The military weakness of China led to their defeat. By the Treaty of Nanking, China gave the Island of Hong Kong and a war indemnity to Britain. She opened five ports for the English trade. The Treaty of Nanking opened doors to Britain in China. The Second Opium War forced China to legalize the opium trade and also to open more ports for foreign trade. The humiliation suffered at the hands of foreign powers made China rise in rebellion against the Manchu king and foreigners in 1854. It is known as the Taiping Rebellion. Though the Manchu king was able to suppress the Rebellion their authority over China deteriorated. In the Sino-Japanese war of 1894 China was defeated and had to concede Formosa Island to Japan. This humiliating defeat led to the Boxer Rebellion. The Chinese youth called Boxers under the leadership of Empress Tzu-Hsi rebelled against the foreign powers and attacked European settlements and Christians in 1899. The combined army of the European powers defeated the Boxers. Tzu-Hsi fled the capital, Peking. Based on the Open Door Policy formulated by the USA, the Chinese territories were partitioned among the foreign powers. This partition of China is known as “Cutting of the Chinese melon”. Thus China became an international colony.

Mao Tse Tung and Communist Party in China:

In 1920, Mao Tse Tung, Chou En Lai and others formed the Communist Party of China in Peking. In 1924, the Kuomintang and the communist party decided to work together. The Soviet Union gave various kinds of aids and also trained the revolutionary army. When Dr. Sun Yar Sen died in 1925 the unity between the Kuomintang and the communist party was broken. In 1931, when the Japanese attacked China, the two parties agreed to work together to resist the Japanese invasion. Kuomintang was under the leadership of Chiang Kai Sheik and the communist party was under the leadership of Mao-Tse-Tung and Chou En Lai. However, the conflict between the two never ceased. The Kuomintang represented the interests of mainly the landlords and capitalists. The communist party was a party of workers and peasants. Mao Tse Tung and Chou-En-Lai organized a March to North China from South China. This is known as Long March of 1934-35, as it covered nearly 6000 miles. Because of the policies pursued by the communist party, it gradually won over the hearts of millions of people. It also organized a huge army, which was called he People’s Liberation Army. After the defeat of Japan, civil wars broke out in China. The Government of the United States gave liberal aid to Chiang Kai Sheik. By 1949 his armies were completely defeated. Chiang Kai Sheik went to Taiwan (Formosa) and formed a Government, which was recognized by the U.S.A.

China, Zhonghua Renmin Gonghe Guo, which is called as People’s Republic of China has Beijing (Peking) as its capital. The large cities in China are Shangai, Canton and Shenzhen. The Area of China is 9,561,000 sq.kms with a population of 1,280.7m. The main language is Chinese. It has a literacy rate of 82% and main religions are Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism. The main currency or Renminbi (means Currency in Chinese) of the country is Yuan.

China – Some Facts:

The most populous county in the world and the third largest in area, China is made up of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and four municipalities. It occupies most of the habitable mainland of East Asia. Two thirds of the territory is mountainous or desert, only one-tenth is cultivated. The eastern half of China is one of the World’s best-watered lands. Three great river systems (the Chang or Uangtze, Huang or Yellow and Xi) provide water for the farmlands. One of the oldest countries in the world, China became a republic in 1911. Following internal conflicts after World War II involving the Kuomintang, Communists and other factions, China came under the domination of Communist armies. The People’s Republic of China was proclaimed in Peking on October 1, 1949, under Mao Tse-Tung. The Kuomintang govt. moved to Taiwan, Dec.8, 1949. Mao died in 1976 and Deng Xiaoping succeeded him as the ‘paramount leader’ of China. Deng died in 1997 and Jiang Zemin came to power.

On Oct. 26, 1971 China was admitted a member of the UN, displacing Nationalist China (Taiwan). China is essentially an agricultural country. The main crops are rice, tea, tobacco, sugarcane, jute, Soya, groundnut and hemp. The main forest products are teak and ting oil. Among the principal industries are cotton and woolen mills, iron, leather and electrical equipments. The chief minerals are coal, manganese, iron ore, gold, copper, lead, zinc, silver, tungsten, mercury, antimony and tin Petroleum industries are steadily growing.

Great Wall of China

The Great wall of china as called is the largest building construction ever carried out, running to around 6,400 Km east to west from gulf of china to the yellow sea to a point in Central Asia. The construction of this fortification dates from 4th century B.C. shih Huang-ti in 214 B.C.

First Construction of the Great Wall:

The first emperor of United China connected the discontinuous walls with watch towers with was used to guard as the rampart. It was mainly built against Hsiung-nu or called he Huns. The wall was constructed partly of masonry and partly of earth and was faced with brick in the eastern portion. It was again rebuilt in the 15th and 16th century. The basic Wall is 30feet height and the towers are 40m high. The great wall lies from 39.49 degrees North to 98.18 degrees East. The Yen Mountains are the world famous ones and has peak up to 4,900 feet above main sea level. The great wall has it crest over these mountains in a zigzag manner. According to the words of the Astronauts and space researchers, the only clear and visible one from the moon on earth is only “The Great Wall”. A statement said “The Great wall is the only visible thing from Satellite”.

Chiese Civilization:

China was the only country with the oldest civilization and it led up to 2000 Years from 221 B.C. to 1911 A.D. and remained as a united one until the series of powerful rules. The great walls construction was carried on only during this period and the main reason why the wall bent at some occasions was this because the capitals were shifted, the borders were changed and mainly the country was captured by fierce tribes of the period including the Mongols and however for the most of the history of china, it was the only developed country of that period in art and technology only because of its construction of the great wall. The inventions of paper, porcelain and gunpowder were the main during the construction of the great wall. The inventions of paper, porcelain and gun power were the main construction items used during the construction of great wall.

After the construction of the great wall the Qin empire was the first empire to be protected by the great wall which is now the northern and eastern china. The wall was built there as a defense against the Hostile tribal attacks from central Asia. The Qin warriors used to walk on the walls as security and the warriors from the great wall attacked the enemies and this was mainly the reason for the expansion of their empire. The great wall is still now the longest man made structure on earth. It was built before 2,200 years with about 3,00,000 slaves. More than 90% of the slaves who built the great wall were brought from Macao a tiny peninsula in the southeast china and was a Portuguese colony at that time. It was returned back to china in 1999. It was a famous tourist center at that time and cheap labor was available there.


Galileo: Life History and Achievements

Galilei- Vineenzo was born in the year 1520 at Santa Maria in Monte near Florence in Italy. He was graved on July 2, 1591 at Florence. He was the father of Galileo and a great musician. Galileo was born on February 15 1564 at Pisa and died on January 8, 1642 at Arcetri, near Florence. He was an Italian Mathematician, astronomer and physicist and is considered as the founder of the experimental method. He was educated at a monastery near Florence before studying medicine at the University at Pisa and Mathematics with a private tutor. After completing a treatise on the centre of gravity on solids, he became the lecturer at the University at the age of 25. Later he went to the University of Padua as a professor of Mathematics. The story of his dropping weights from the leaning tower of Pisa has no basis in fact. Galileo’s conflict with the Church arose over his support of the Copernican theory-that the planets revolve around the sun. A substantial works part is related to mechanics and he was the first to apply mathematics to the analysis. He suggested the use of Pendulum for clocks and proposed the law of uniform acceleration of falling bodies. Galileo developed the astronomical telescope, with which he discovered the craters on the moon, sunspots, phases of Venus, and the satellites of Jupiter. He was the one who showed the Milky Way is composed of Stars. Galileo was under house arrest for the final eight years of his life for having “held and taught”, Copernican Doctrine. His main works were Dialogue concerning the two chief World Systems-Ptolemic and Copernican in the year 1632 and Dialogue Concerning Two New Sciences (1638). This is the short life history of Galileo.

Here follows some of his great life achievements. Heliocentric system, any theoretical model of the solar system in which it is assumed that the sun lives at or the near centre and Earth is included along with other bodies revolving around it. But it was said as “Central fire” around which all planets revolve by philolaus in 5th century BC. Galileo correctly proposed it in 1633. Galileo has also made individual analysis on separate planets. He discovered two satellites of Jupiter. He proposed that Europa was a satellite of Jupiter on 1610 and it is at a mean distance of 671,000 Kms from Jupiter and possessed a sidereal period of 3.551 days and orbital inclination is 0.47 degrees and has a radius of 1,569kms and mass of 4.785X1022 Kgs. He too proposed Callisto is a satellite of Jupiter and at a distance of 1,883,000 Kms from it with a mass of 1.075X1023kg. Regarding Saturn he made first observation in 1610 with his telescope. He saw Saturn three colored. So, he said “Saturn is not one alone, but is composed of three, which almost touch one another”. After three years he found it to be wrong. He gave a sharp conclusion that a thin, flat ring, which nowhere touches the body of the planet, surrounds Saturn. His theory met with a surprising amount of opposition but in 1665 it was universally accepted even though the nature of the ring system was not accepted much later. He concerned of nature as governed thought by law stat able with mathematical precision; The book of nature, he said, is “Written in mathematical form”. When Galileo’s demonstration that the earth moved was confirmed by the work of Newton and others, a battle was born in the history of rationalism that won at last, since it provided a decisive victory in a crucial case of conflict between reason and apparently revealed the truth in the life of Galileo. He too gave some revolutionary theories following in the tradition already established by Copernicans and Kepler. In Galileo’s work more original scientific directions came into a head. His life was composed of various achievements and that led him to a great victory. His achievements will be spoken by the world always.

Leaning Tower of Pisa

Leaning Tower of Pisa italically called as Tonve Pendente Di Pisa is a medieval structure immortalized by the settling of its foundation, causing it to lean 17 feet(5.2 meters) from the perpendicular. The bell tower, began in 1174 as the third and final structure of the cathedral complex, was designated to stand 185 feet high and was constructed of white marbles. Three of its eight stories were completed when the uneven Settling of the foundation in the soft ground became noticeable. Bonnano Pisano, the engineer in charge of construction of the present tower that leans in Pisa, sought to compensate for the lean by making the new stories slightly taller on the short side, but the extra masonry caused the structure to sink aside still further. Work was suspended several times as engineers sought solutions, but the tower was ultimately topped out in the 14th century and thus it stills leans. In modern times the foundation have been strengthened by injection of cement grounding, but is the late 20th century, the structure was still in danger of collapse, and various schemes were under considerations of saving it.

Galileo, the man who found out that the world is a big ball, round in shape was born in Pisa and the cathedral where the tower is present helped him. Galileo during his study in the college saw the swinging lamp in the bell tower in the leaning tower got the idea of a pendulum that helps in running a clock. The work of Bonnano Pisano was prefixed by Guglino pisano in 1162 and he made the first Pulpit. Bonnano pisano made the bronze doors in 1180, Nicola pisanoi, covered the baptisary pulpit in 1260 and Nicolas son Gicovanni pisano was the sculptor of the present cathedral pulpit in 1310.

Internal struggles help to bring about the occupation of Pisa by the frontiers in 1406. When the French army attacked Italy in 1404, Pisa temporarily, reasserted its independence. It had a lot of war until it was conquered by Florence in 1509. Thereafter, it declined as a provincial Tuscan town. It also has an important railway junction and famous light industries have brought the prosperity to them. Wind spread destruction took away the charm of the leaning tower during the World War II. But, the tourist continued to flock there to see the leaning tower, which is in the danger of collapse now. The Pisa tower marks one of the extra ordinary monuments in the history of western art. There is an uneasy relationship between the carvings on the Gothic’s, the cathedral and the tower. Historians try to make out the uneasy relationship but still now, they remain in a mess. The look of the 25-sided fountain mixes tale, the old Testaments characters and heraldic characters animals is a beautiful thing to look at. Probably, the relationship between the sculptors and the characters and the carvings may be derived by more detailed study about that Italian history and may we get an answer.

United States of America – A brief look

United States of America said to be discovered by Christopher Columbus, was originally discovered by America Vespuci. He actually sailed to the land and he couldn’t name it. He returned his confusion. Christopher Columbus who sailed came to know that America Vespuci had already been here and hence named it America. It’s origin in the modern Era was filled with meaning. Europe’s ways, both the new and old, could be planted in America fee of the choking weeds of outmoded habits. In the beginning America acted as a testing ground and it was difficult to predict what would happen. There is a great saying “Capitalism of America came in the first ships”, To the men coming from the “Tight little isle” the vast land of America, Though untamed and dense with forest, was remarkably like the old, both in flora that covered it and in the crops that it would yield. The failure in New York and Maryland to reconstitute the manners of Europe did not prevent the founders of the Carolinas from making one more attempt. In the Fundamental Constitution of 1669, provisions were included for “leet-men” who would not be able to go off from the land of their particular lord without permission. It was declared “all- leet men’s children shall be leet-men, and so to all generations”. This was the inducement of slavery in America in the 15th Century.

To most Americans, for the matter to core of the Puritan social heritage has been summed up is Macaulay’s well known witticism that the puritans prohibited bearbaiting not because of torture but to bear, because of pleasure it afforded to the spectators. For one who cherishes American political institutions, the manner in which representative Government began in the Seventeenth century might well make him shudder as well as wonder. The precautious existence of this first representative assembly in America was emphasized in 1624, when the grown, for various reasons revoked the Company’s charter. The king declaring that “the Government of the colonies of Virginia shall immediately depend upon our shelf”. Interestingly enough, in the light of the later Revolution, among their earliest laws was the prohibition upon the Governor and the council. As the germ of the Revolution is to be detached in the political history of the Seventeenth Century, So the genesis of social war is implicit on its social history. In 1671, the Governor of Virginia estimated that Negroes made up less than 5% of the population. From the opening years of the eighteenth century to the opening years of the nineteenth Century, the Negroes were treated only as slaves in the country. In the middle of the nineteenth century, the population of blacks tuned out to be 30% in the total population of America. Bon as a cobbler Abraham Lincoln gave the say to the democracy as “Government by the people, for the people and of the people” and put out its untouchability against the blacks. They were started to be respected equally. Then “The United States of America” came into being with Washington DC as the capital city.

United States of America is now geographically set with Washington D.C. as capital. The other large cities are New York, Los Angles, Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, San Diego, Boston, Miami. It has a literacy rate of 97%. The Land Area of United States is 9,372,614 sq.kms. The main religion of USA is Christianity.

The victory of the Allies in World War-I made USA a world power. The end of the World War-II saw the emergence of USA as the one of the Super power. With break up of USSR in 1991, it has now become the only super power.

The union originally compressed 13 States, to which 7 were added subsequently. 30 Other states, which were formally territories, were also admitted into the union as full states, does making up 50 states in all apart from District of Columbia. The States of America are as follows: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinoisans, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming.

Regarding agriculture main crops are Maize, Wheat, Soya beans, Barely, Oats, Rice, Sugar Potatoes, Cotton, Tobacco and Dairy products. The major industries are Iron and Steel, food and kinder products, chemicals, Metal products, Electronic Equipments, Machinery, Transportation Equipment, Paper, Petroleum products, Fertilizers and Plastic.

The main Minerals mined in the USA are Coal, Copper, Lead, Phosphates, Uranium, Zink, Gold, Silver, Iron, Molybdenum, and Oil. The oil reserves in USA, the World’s biggest oil producer, are expected to last only 10 years if the output continues at current rate. USA mainly exports machinery, chemicals, Motor Vehicles, Aircraft, Military Equipments, Grains and Cereals.

The US is the only industrial country where large population increases are still projected, largely as the result of immigration. In July 1997 USA conducted its first underground Nuclear-related test since 1992 Moratorium on July 5, the US Spacecraft “Path Finder” landed on Mars.

The Recent events that took place in USA from 2001 are, On September 11, 2001 terrorist crashed two planes into New York’s World trade center, leading to the collapse of the twin 110 Storey towers, another plane hit Pentagon, and a Forth Crash in Pittsburg. Major cities in the US and Canada were hit by power failure which lasted for hours in August 2003. Space shuttle Columbia broke up on return to earth from a 16 day mission and a crew of seven men including Indian American Kalpana Chawla, Six Americans and an Israeli died on February 1.

Empire State Building Newyork

The Empire State Building was built during the important development in civil engineering in the first half of the 20th century, though there were only few striking innovations advancing techniques produced large sky scrappers, buildings and dams all over the world especially in the United States. The building was built in New York with exploitation of Steel frames and reinforced concrete.

Empire State building- Facts:

Empire State building is a steel frame 102 Story building completed in New York City in the year 1931. It was built with the height of 1,250 feet (381 Meters) and was the world’s first Sky Scrapper with the greatest vertical dimension. It stood as the largest and highest Structure in the world up to the year 1954.

In 1950, a 222 feet Television Antenna was added to the building on the top, which increased the height of the building from 1,250 feet to 1,472 feet. The building is addressed in a site of 2 Acres, in the heart of Manhattan city on the 5th Avenue at the 34th Street.

The building of Sky Scrapers was only up to the year 1931 and stopped from the year 1932 up to the World War II. The building with a great strength showed its power by sustaining the crash impact of a B-25 Bomber in the year June 1945. The building was not heavily damaged in this attack. There were only minor damages to this building and thus this building came out to be called as “Strengthen sky scraper”. Shreve, Lamb and Harmon designed the building. The Credit of the building went to them.

As the Sky Scrapers became very popular in the period of the 20th centuries, a law was passed for that sunlight must reach the buildings that are built behind the Sky Scrapers. In New York, buildings were created such that, they were not permitted to attain a height greater than twice the width of the Street Below. But, the major set back of the empire state building in that at the fifth floor, at the plan of the top section, the tower is equal to the area of only one fourth of the plan at the ground level.

The building has an attractive lighting schedule to attract the tourist towards it. The building is decorated with glowing light of different color during the night. As being the independence day of America, the building glows yellow and it glows orange on all Sundays. This colorful appearance gives a good effect.

The total volume of the empire state building is about 37 million cubic feet. This is the only building with the maximum volume. The area of the site in which the building is constructed is about 83,860 square feet. The cost of the land in the present day is about $40,948,900 and the total cost of the building is $24,718,000. The total cost of the building and the land makes it the costliest building in the country in the hands of the private body. The building was opened on may 1,1931,by Herbert Hoover who turned on the lights.

Statue of Liberty

The Statue of liberty formally called as Liberty Enlightening the world, colossal statue on liberty Island in the upper bay of New York harbor, United States of America, that commemorates the friendship of the people of the United States and France. Standing 302 feet(92 Meters) high including the pedestal it represents a women holding a torch in her raised right hand and a tablet bearing the date July 4,1976 in her left proclaiming liberty. An elevator raises to the upper level and a spiral
staircase leads to an observation platform in her crown. The plaque at the pedestals entrance is inscribed with the sonnet “The New Colossus” by Emma lazarus. It was written to help raise money for the pedestal.

Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
With conquering limbs astride from land to land,
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
“Keep ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she
With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”

The American Museum of Immigration is contained at the Statues base. A French historian Edward de laboulaye, made the proposal for the statue after the American Civil War. Funds were contributed by French people and the construction began in 1875 under the sculptor fredic-Auguste Bartholic. The statue was constructed of copper sheets, hammered into shape by hand and assembled over four gigantic steel supports designed by Eugene – Emmanuel veillet-Le Duc and Alexandre Gustave Eiffel. In 1985 the completed statue, 151 feet high in and weighing 225 tones was disampled and shipped to New York City.

The Pedestal, designed by American architect, Richard Morrice Hunt and built within the walls of foot wood on Belbones Island, was completed later. President Cleveland dedicated the Statue mounted on the pedestal on October 28, 1886. In 1980’s both American and French workers for a centennial celebration in July 1986 restored the statue. The lighthouse board first administrated the Statue, because the illuminated torch was considered as a navigational aid. Because foot wood was still an operational Army Post, the statue was transferred to war department. It was declared as an national monument in 1924. The foot wood was deactivated in 1937, and the rest of the island was incorporated in to the monument. In 1956, Beldoes Island was renamed to liberty island and in 1956 nearby Ellis island, once the country’s major immigration station, was added bringing the monument’s area into 58 acres. The Ellis Island was in 1808 was sold to the federal government by the New York government for $ 10,000 and it was used as fort and power magazine. It became the part of statue of liberty national monument in 1956 and it was reopened for sightseers in 1976. Barthodi, the sculptor of the statue of liberty in the New York City, decided in 1886, the statue of titled in full, “Liberty Enlightens the World “ he was considered as one of the best patriotic sculptors.

Taj Mahal India

Taj Mahal, a mausoleum built on the southern bank of the Yamuna river, outside Agra in India. It was built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal whose real name was Arjumand banu beagum. She died in a child birth in Bhuranpur in 1631 A.D. They got married in 1612 A.D the building was planned to be built in 1632 A.D. It was built by a group of men from India, Persia, Central asia,and beyond. About 20,000 workman were employed daily to complete the complex at the expense of 40,000,000 rupees.
The complex consist of a rectangular plot measuring 1,902 feet x 1,002 feet on each side, bounded on north and south by two oblong sections. The southern oblong has a sand stone gateway to the complex while the northern oblong section terminates at the Yamuna’s edge directly to the mausoleum. The mausoleum is on the west and east by two symmetrically identical buildings, the mosque and the Jawab respectively.

The whole Taj complex was conceived as an entity because Mughal building architecture allowed no amendment in them. The mosque and Jawab of the Red Sikiri sand stone and some pietra duta (hard stone )surface decoration ,contrast in color and texture with the mausoleum of pure white marble. The mausoleum stands on a marble plinth 23 feet high and has four identical faces with a chamfered corner and a massive arch of height 108 feet on each face. Parapets create the skyline rhythm of the mausoleum over each arch and by pinnacle and domed kiosks on each corner.

The Islamic building activity of Shah Jahan period is marked by fresh emergence in India with Persian features that had been seen in the Humayun tomb at Delhi, began in 1564. The Taj Mahal has won a good praise virtually from the time of the erection. The beauty not only lies in its parts but also in the beauty that is seen when viewed from any angle near the complex. The marble surface reflects continuously sunlight during the daytime. All the resources of the emperor was put into the construction of the complex. In addition to the mausoleum the complex includes a wide variety of accessories building parts that gives the building a great appearance. The mausoleum rises on the four sides of the complex and gives it a great appearance.

The mausoleum of the Taj Mahal is a large impressive sceptural monument. The word is derived from the word mausols, which is a word of the ruler of caria, in memory of his dead wife. the most impressive mausoleum present now is the taj complex only .

The emperor wanted to build a black mausoleum opposite to the marble complex but unfortunately before he could finish it. Lord Curzon said the complex as “ triumphal “ on his return from India as the viceroy. He took a personal interest in renovation of the Indian art and architectural monuments. Diamonds and precious stones were depicted on the walls and all were lost during the course of time.